The water spray fire extinguishing system usually uses a centrifugal atomizing nozzle to spray high-speed mist water droplets to extinguish the fire. Since the water mist nozzle sprays discontinuous intermittent water droplets, it has good electrical insulation properties and can be used for electrical fire fighting. Therefore, the water spray fire extinguishing system is especially suitable for the protection of oil type power transformer insulator root burst fire and local tank burst fire. Through the water spray electrical insulation test and transformer fire simulation test conducted by the Ministry of Public Security's Tianjin Fire Research, the application of water spray fire extinguishing in oil type power transformers has been authoritative and validated.
Since the main combustibles of oil type power transformer fires are insulating oils (the fire hazard is Class C), the water spray system saves the oil type transformer fire mainly through the cooling, suffocation and emulsification of water mist. The water droplets vaporize when heated, and can take away a lot of heat. At the same time, the volume of the water droplets will expand 1680 times after being vaporized, so that the oxygen content in the air around the combustibles is significantly reduced. When the oxygen content in the air surrounding the combustibles is less than 15%, the fire is extinguished. In addition, when a high-speed water mist impacts the surface of the insulating oil to be burned, the insulating oil is mixed and emulsified on the surface layer with water, so that the combustion performance is remarkably lowered, and the combustion of the insulating oil is interrupted. Under the combined action of various fire extinguishing mechanisms, oil type power transformer fires will be suppressed and eventually extinguished.
Because water is the cheapest and most widely used fire extinguishing agent, it is inexhaustible in most situations. Therefore, in the case of water-saving and fire-fighting water protection, priority should be given to water fire-fighting methods. The water spray fire extinguishing system is a water fire extinguishing method that is very suitable for oil type power transformers installed in the open air. The research found that the water spray fire extinguishing system is applied to the fire protection of oil type power transformers, which has significant advantages such as high fire extinguishing efficiency, low engineering cost and operation and maintenance cost, and simple operation and maintenance of the system. Especially for oil type power transformers (or reactors) installed in open-air substations, due to the large droplet diameter (0.5mm~0.8mm), the spray duration is longer (≥24min), and the initial velocity of water spray is higher, and the nozzle protection covers the transformer body and the oil pit, which can ensure better fire extinguishing and fire control effects below 5 winds. The shortcoming of water spray fire extinguishing is that the fire extinguishing water is large, and the fire protection water source has high requirements. Generally, a large-capacity fire pool and a large-flow fire pump are required. For substation with severe water shortage, if the fire water source cannot be guaranteed, the water spray fire extinguishing system cannot be used.
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